Scheme of a boiler house

Burner is supplied with fuel by piper mixes with air and burns in the furnace. A fan is pumping out the air necessary for fuel burning from inside of the boiler house or outside and furnishing a tubular air heater with it. Burner is provided with the air heated to the proper temperature.

Combustion products deliver a part of heat to the shield pipes, covering walls of the furnace. Water and water-steam mixture is circulating in these pipes. The external surface of pipes warmed by the hot combustion products is called heating surface. As heat pipes receive the most quantity of heat by radiation, they are called radiation heating surfaces. Other heating surfaces, receiving heat mostly by convection, are called convection ones.

Smoke, cooled to 950…1150° Celsius in the chamber of a furnace, passes through a rare bank of tubes, steam superheater, to water economizer and air heater. In the air heater smoke chilled to 120…160° Celsius is thrown out by the chimney into atmosphere.

Utilized in the steam engines and equipment of industrial consumers and sent back condensate of the steam is mixed with chemically treated complementary water in deaerator.

In deaerator mixture called feeding water is warmed by the low pressure steam to remove aggressive gas. Economizer is supplied with water by feeding pump from deaerator. It is heated almost to boiling temperature in this installation (a part of it even evaporates) and gets into the drum of boiler.

Feeding water mixed with that in the boiler drum flows down into the headers of shield pipes by external tubes. These headers supply shield pipes with water, it boils up and turns into the water-steam mixture rising up in the shield ones. In the drum steam separates from the water, flows into the superheater, then-into the steam engines or industrial enterprises. Separated water flows again by the same circuit: external downcoming pipes-headers-shield pipes-drum. Mostly in the boiler house a few units connected with common communications of the fuel, water supply, steam distribution and smoke removing are installed.

Smoke carries many fine ash parts out of the furnace because a boiler is heated with ashy solid fuel. These parts use up a smoke exhaust fan violently and thrown out they pollute environment. Ash catchers are installed in front of the smoke fan to avoid pollution. Ash, slag of burnt fuel from furnace and ash from the catcher pour into the sluiceway and are washed down into the slag grinder by water flow. Grinded slag, ash and water mixture are removed out of the boiler house.