Liquid Fuel

Liquid fuel of different sorts is obtained during the processing of oil. Heated to 300…370° Celsius oil is distilled and fractions condensating at different temperatures are distinguished: liquified gas (output about 1 percent), gasoline (about 15 percent at 180…350° Celsius temperature), kerosene (about 18 percent at 180…350° Celsius). Heavy remainder with the beginning of boiling temperature of 330…350° Celsius, is called mazut (black oil). It is thick liquid, which properties depend very much on those of initial oil. The density of mazut decreases rising its temperature, so it is necessary to warm it before pouring it out of tanks or transporting by pipes. In boilers mostly mazut of 40 and 100 sort is used.

Mazut contains much carbon (84…86 percent) and hydrogen (10…12 percent), little ash (to 0,3 percent) and moisture (1…3 percent). Combustion heat of mazut is very large – 38500…41000 kJ/kg due to a small amount of ballast. Mazut is divided into thinly sulphury 9to 0,5 percent), sulphury (0,5…2,0 percent) and highly sulphury depending on the amount of sulphur.

Liquid fuel is used in engines of external combustion. Fuel is divided into light and heavy according to the characteristics of evaporation. Gasoline, ligroine, kerosine belong to the light fuel. Aircraft fuel is called the lightest gasoline. Heavier one is used in cars. Its sort corresponds to the octane number. Heavy fuel (light diesel and solar oil) is used in diesel engines.