Fuel Conception, Classification and Composition

Fuel stuff is any material, which burning gives great quantities of heat justified technically and economically.

Nowadays fossil and nuclear fuel is used. Burning fossil heat is produced due to the oxidation of combustible fuel elements. Utilizing nuclear fuel it is got during the disintegration of nuclei of some heavy elements isotopes. Meanwhile the main source of heat is fossil.

According to physical state fossil is distributed into solid, liquid and gaseous. Wood, peat, coal of different sorts (brown, stone), anthracite, coke, oil shale and others are numbered among solid ones. Liquid fuel is oil, mazut (black oil), kerosene, gasoline, solar oil, pitches of the coal and so on. Natural, generator, coke-furnace, blast-furnace gas are reckoned among gaseous fuel.

Fuel is natural and artificial. Natural one is called the fuel extracted from natural sources, e.g. peat, coal and brown one, from anthracite, oil shale, natural gas, oil, wood. Natural fuel processed chemically or mechanically is called artificial e.g., timber coal, coke, gasoline, kerosene, mazut, generator, blast-furnace, coke-furnace gas, blocks of solid and oil waste and so on.

According to the use fuel is distributed, conditionally, into power and technologic. Power fuel is used to produce heat and electric energy, technologic fuel is used in different industrial furnaces and as raw material in chemical industry.

Usually the composition of solid and liquid fuel is expressed in percents of the mass of its components. Combustible elements of solid and liquid fuel are carbon, hydrogen and sulphur. Their amounts in the fuel are marked in mass per cents C, H and S.